Vitamins Vitamins area a organic compound that are essential for regulating the metabolic functions and the processes that release energy from food. There are 13 known vitamins that can be categorised as either fat-soluble (A,D,E and K) or water-soluble (the eight B vitamins and C) Minerals Minerals are present in the body but in small amounts, in total they make up only 4% of body weight. They are essential for variety of vital processes from basic bone formation to the normal functioning of the heart and digestive system, unlike the vitamins minerals are not organic they are inorganic.
Biotin and Pantothenic acid common uses: Biotin and pantothenic acid are vitamins that can be found In most foods. Both acids are involved in the production of various enzymes and breaking down carbohydrates, fats and protein in food. Biotin can help promote healthy nails and hair, it may help improve blood sugar control in people that have diabetes. Pantothenic acid promotes a healthy central nervous system, may help alleviate chronic fatigue syndrome, migraines, indigestion and the symptoms of other allergies Dosage: If you are taking supplements for hair and nails take up to 900 mg of biotin a day. For periods of stress take up to 100 mg of pantothenic acid a day as part of a vitamin b complex. Warning: remember to so speak to a pharmacist or your GP before taking supplements if you are on any other medication.
Folic acid common uses: Folic acid is a water soluble vitamin B that is also called folacin, folate or folic acid. It can be used to help heal wound, build up muscle. It's also good for protecting against birth defects, reduces the risk of heart disease and strokes, can lower the risk of certain types of cancer and can help alleviate depression especially in elderly people. Dosage: To help with overall health and the prevention of heart disease take a dose of 200 mg of folic acid a day. Folic acid can be taken any time of the day with or without food, if you are taking individual folic acid supplements try combine it with an additional 100 mg of vitamin B12 to prevent B12 deficiency.
Warning: Taking folic acid supplements may mask a type of anemia caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency. If unchecked this anemia can cause irreversible nerve damage and dementia. if you take folic acid be sure to take extra vitamin B12 as well. remember to speak to a pharmacist or your GP before taking supplements if you are on any medication.
Riboflavin Common uses: This water soluble vitamin is apart of the vitamin B complex family. The body depends of riboflavin for a variety of reason such as the production of thyroid hormone which speed up your metabolism and supply energy. It help prevents or delays the onset of cataracts, reduces the frequency and severity of migraines and can help improve skin blemishes caused by rosacea. Dosage: The recommended intake a day is 1.3 mg for men and 1.1 mg for women these amounts help prevent general deficiencies, larger doses are usually taken for specific conditions. For example, cataract prevention a usual dosage is 25 mg a day, for rosacea it would be 40 mg a day. Warning: Remember if you are on any medication speak to a pharmacist or GP before taking supplements.
Niacin common uses: Niacin is needed to release energy from carbohydrate food, it's also involved in controlling blood sugar. It can also help keep skin healthy and maintain it's proper functioning of the nervous and digestive system. Dosage: the normal dosage for men is 17 mg and 13 mg for women, to help treat certain conditions you'll need higher dosages, For anxiety and depression take 50 mg of niacin a day, for insomnia take 500mg one hour before going to bed. Warning: Consult your doctor before using any form of niacin if you suffer form conditions like diabetes, low blood pressure, bleeding problems, glaucoma, gout, liver disease or ulcers. these can all be aggravated by niacin. If you take a daily therapeutic dose of 1000 mg or more of any form of niacin see the doctor every three months to have your liver enzymes measured.
Thiamin Common uses: Thiamin is great for converting carbohydrates in foods to energy, it also promotes healthy nerves and may be useful in treating certain types of heart disease. it can also be good for improving your mood, strengthen the heart and soothe indigestion. Dosage: the normal amount is 1 mg for men and 0.8 for women which helps maintain good health and prevent thiamin deficiency, to target specific conditions you will need a higher amount. For example, heart disease take 50 mg a day. For depression take 50 mg daily as part of a b complex supplement. Warning: If you are on any medication speak to a pharmacist or your GP before taking supplements.
Vitamin A Common uses: Vitamin A is good for helping the body fight colds, flues and a variety of other infections. It promotes skin health and the healing of wounds, burns and ulcers. Can also benefit the lining of the digestive track. Dosage: The recommended amount for men is 700 mg and for women is 600 mg. In order to avoid taking excessive amounts of vitamin A its advised to take the recommended amount or having up to a daily allowance of 800 mg. Warning:Over time Vitamin A can build up toxic levels so its best to not take to much and to remember that the beta-carotene form is safer. If you are pregnant or considering pregnancy then you should not take more than 1500 mg of vitamin A daily anything higher could cause birth defects. If you have a medical condition or are taking tablets consult with your doctor or a pharmacist first before taking supplements.
Vitamin B Common uses: Vitamin B6 mainly functions as a coenzyme which acts in concert with enzyme to help speed up chemical reactions in the cells. It can also help lift depression, ease insomnia, treat carpal tunnel syndrome and can help relive asthma attacks. Dosage: the normal amount for men is 1.4 mg a day and for women is 1.2 mg a day. to keep homocysteine levels in check take 3 mg of B6 a day, But taking a daily dose of 50 mg is often recommended. For acute carpal tunnel try 50 mg of B6 or P-5-P three times a day. waning: long term use of high doses of B6 can cause nerve damage. remember to also speak to a pharmacist or your GP first if you are on any of medication before taking supplements.
Vitamin C Common uses: Vitamin C can come in a few forms like capsules, tablets, a liquid or a powered. Vitamin C can help strengthen the capillaries (the small blood vessels) and cell walls, it's also good for the formation of collagen. Can speed up the time it takes for wounds or bruising to heal, promotes healthy gums ,minimize the chance of getting cold systems. It can also be used to help prevent cataracts and protect the body from some forms of cancer. Dosage: the recommended amount for men and women to take daily is 40 mg. for general health take 200 mg of vitamin c a day through foods and supplements. Warning: like most supplements it's also best to check with you doctor or a pharmacist before taking anything especially if you are on medication. If you suffer form kidney stones, kidney disease or haemochromatosis then limit your daily intake of vitamin C to 500mg. Vitamin C can distort the accuracy of medical tests for diabetes, colon cancer and haemoglobin levels so its best to inform your doctor that your taking this.
Vitamin D Common uses: Vitamin D is produced within the body when skin is exposed to ultraviolet B rays in sunlight. Can help regulate blood levels of calcium and phosphorus helping to build strong bones and teeth. Dosage: A daily recommended amount of vitamin D hasn't been set for adults because its assumed that you will get enough from sunlight on the skin, however if you are over the age of 65 and or pregnant or breastfeeding its recommend to take at least 10 mg a day. Warning: Taking to many vitamin D supplements can result in elevated blood levels of calcium leading to weight lose, nausea and heart and kidney damage.
Vitamin E Common uses: Vitamin E basic function is to protect the cell membranes, it also helps the body to use selenium and vitamin K. and E. it can also be used to protect against heart disease, certain cancers and a variety of other chronic aliments. It's also great for enhancing the immune system, protecting against toxins off of cigarette smoke and other pollution and aids the skin in healing. Dosage: Much like vitamin D a recommended amount hasn't been set, but for a safe intake its recommended 4 mg a day for men and 3 mg a day for women. Many nutritionists recommend in order benefit from disease fighting potential that vitamin e has you should take 250 to 500 mg daily in capsule or tablet form. Warning: If you are on prescription blood-thinning drugs like anticoagulants or aspirin you should consult with your doctor before using vitamin E. Do not take vitamin E two days before or after surgery. remember to talk to a pharmacist or GP before taking supplements if you are on any medication.
Vitamin K Common uses: this single nutrient sets in motion the entire blood clotting process as soon as a wound occurs without it we could bleed to death. It can also be goo for reducing the risk of internal haemorrhaging, help build strong bone and ward off or help treat osteoporosis. Dosage:
Warning: Supplement vitamin k more then is found in a multivitamin should be taken with your doctors supervision.
Calcium Common uses: Calcium is essential for bones and teeth, it's also required for bodily functions like blood clotting and muscle contraction. Helps maintain healthy teeth and bones, prevent progressive bone loss and osteoporosis, can aid heart and muscle contraction nerve impulses and blood clotting, may help lover blood pressure in people with hypertension and can ease indigestion. Dosage: the current recommended amount for calcium for both men and women is 700 mg with no extra amount needed for pregnant women. Warning: People with thyroid or kidney disease should seek medical advice before taking calcium. Calcium may interact with some medication such as tetracycline antibiotics. if you are on any medication make sure to speak to your GP or a pharmacist before taking supplements.
Chromium Common uses: Chromium is a trace mineral that can come in several chemical forms. Because a lot of people don't have enough chromium in their diets, supplements may be worth taking. Chromium can help the body to use insulin, a hormone that transfers blood sugar to the cells where it burns as fuel. It's essential for breaking down protein, fat and carbohydrates, may lower total blood cholesterol LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Dosage: there isn't a recommended amount set for chromium but scientists believe that 50 to 200 mg a day can prevent a deficiency.
Warning: People with diabetes should speak to their doctors before taking chromium, as it may alter the dosage for insulin or other diabetes medication. If you are on any other medication make sure to speak with your GP or a pharmacist before taking supplements.
Copper Common uses: copper is essential in the formation of collagen, a fundamental protein in bones, skin and connective tissue. It can help maintain fertility, ensures healthy hair and skin pigmentation and promotes blood clotting. Dosage: there is no daily recommended amount or copper but its advised to have 1.5 to 3 mg daily to keep the body functioning normally. Warning: If you are on any medication make sure to speak to your GP or pharmacist before taking supplements.
Iodine Common uses: Iodine has only one known function in the body its essential to the thyroid gland for manufacturing thyroxine. it can corrects an iodine deficiency, ensures the proper function of the thyroid gland and may help to treat fibrocystic breasts. Dosage: a recommended target for iodine is 140 mg in both men and women.
Warning: Iodine deficiency is rare in most developed countries you should only take iodine if you are prescribed by your doctor.
Iron Common uses: Iron is an essential part of haemoglobin the oxygen carrying component of red blood cells. Can help treat iron deficiency anemia, often needed during pregnancy by women with heavy menstrual periods or in situations determined by doctors. Dosage: the normal daily amount that is recommended for men is 8.7 mg a day and for postmenopausal women. For younger women its 14.8 mg a day with no recommendation for an additional requirement during pregnancy's. Warning: Avoid high dose supplements containing iron alone unless they have been prescribed by your doctor. Some people suffer from hemochromatosis an inherited disease which causes them to absorb to much iron. Supplements containing iron alone could also mask a cause of anemia such as bleeding ulcer and prevent your doctor from making an early diagnosis.
Magnesium Common uses: Magnesium is a versatile mineral it's involved in energy production, nerve function, muscle relaxation and bone and tooth formation. It can help to protect against heart disease and arrhythmia, can ease symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. It can help lower blood pressure, may reduce the severity of asthma attacks, improve symptoms of pms and aid in preventing the complications of diabetes. Dosage: the recommended daily amount is 300 mg for men and 270 mg for women. A higher doses are required for teenage girls 300 mg and for disease prevention or treatment. for heart disease prevention take 300 mg a day, for arrhythmia, asthma and recovery from heart failure use 300 mg a day. Warning: People with kidney disease should check with their doctors before taking magnesium. Magnesium can reduce the effectiveness of tetracycline antibiotics.
Phosphorus Common uses: Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body after calcium there is up to 650 grams of it found in the average person. there isn't a biological or cellular process that doesn't directly or indirectly involve phosphorus. In some cases it works to protect cells, strengthening the membranes. It can also help build strong bones and maintain skeletal integrity, help form tooth enamel and strengthening the teeth. Dosage: the recommended target amount in men and women is 550 mg daily. Warning: A big risk with phosphorus is getting to much which can lead to calcium deficiency, before taking you could consult your doctor first. in rare instances of a phosphorus deficiency such as from kidney or digestive disease or severe burns phosphorus should be medically supervised.
Potassium Common uses: Potassium is the third abundant mineral in the body after calcium and phosphorus, it's an electrolyte a substance that takes on a positive or negative charge when dissolved in a watery medium of the bloodstream. Potassium is used to conduct nerve impulses, initiate muscle contractions and regulate heartbeat and blood pressure. It may also prevent high blood pressure, heart disease and strokes. dosage: the recommended target is 3500 mg daily for both men and women. Warning: if you suffer from kidney disease or taking medication for high blood pressure or heart disease do not take potassium supplements without consulting your doctor first.
Selenium Common uses: Selenium acts as a antioxidant blocking the rogue molecules known as free radicals that damage our DNA. It works well with vitamin E to help prevent cancer and heart disease. Protects against cataracts and macular degeneration, can fight viral infections: reduce the severity of cold sores and shingles and can help relieve lupus symptoms. Dosage: the recommended intake a day is 75 mg for men and 60 mg for women but for a therapeutic dose it can go up to 200 mg.
Warning: Don't exceed recommended doses, long term absorption of high doses of selenium as little as 900 mg a day can cause
side effects such as skin rashes, nausea, fatigue, hair lose, fingernail changes and depression.
Zinc Common uses: Zinc is critical for hundreds of processes in the body like cell growth to immunity, even for taste and smell. it can help prevent colds, flu and other infections, can help treat a range of chronic ailments from rheumatoid arthritis and under active thyroid to chronic fatigue and osteoporosis. Alleviates skin problems and digestive complaints and may improve fertility, build healthy hair and diminish tinnitus. dosage: the recommended intake a day for zinc is 7 mg for women and 9.5 mg for men, higher dosages are usually for specific conditions. the normal medicinal dose is 15 mg once a day, its best to not take zinc for longer then a month as it may interfere with copper absorption. Warning: taking more then 30 mg of zinc daily in the long term interfere with copper absorption leading to anemia. Daily doses of more than 100 mg of zinc can lead to impair immunity.